Internet And Network Technologies

Cryptography Fundamentals

Cryptography Fundamentals: Applying Cryptography

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Cryptography Fundamentals: Defining Cryptography

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### Cryptography Fundamentals: Applying Cryptography

**Lesson Objectives**

**Cryptography Fundamentals: Applying Cryptography**

- start the course
- describe and identify data that has been encrypted using the ECB mode
- specify how Cipher Block Chaining uses an IV, or initialization vector, to make data appear random
- describe how Propagating Cipher Block Chaining mode improved on CBC by causing small changes to each block encrypted
- describe the Cipher Feedback mode and how it builds on CBC and makes a block cipher into a stream cipher
- describe the Output Feedback mode and how it can use the same process for encryption and decryption
- describe the Counter mode and how It can be used for parallelizing encryption and decryption
- use a simple AES implementation to encrypt and decrypt data and compare the results to the NIST standard to confirm operation of the algorithm
- describe how the DES and 3DES algorithms work to encrypt and decrypt data
- describe the Blowfish block cipher algorithm and its properties
- describe the RC4 streaming cipher and its properties
- describe the ElGamal cipher algorithm and its usage
- describe the RSA public-key encryption and its operation
- describe the deprecated MD5 and SHA1 algorithms and the newly chosen replacement, SHA3
- apply and describe the operation of the SHA2 hashing algorithms
- describe the Hash Message Authentication Code, or HMAC, and its use to authenticate and verify the integrity of a message
- identify and describe basic key management policies and procedures
- describe how to cryptographically exchange keys securely
- identify the role and purpose of key escrow policies and procedures
- identify web browser-based secure communications and the role of certificates and Certificate Authorities (CAs)
- describe of use of SSL and TLS in security tools like the Secure Shell, or SSH
- use GPG to encrypt and decrypt an e-mail message
- describe how disk encryption works and the threats it can help protect against
- identify the features and strengths of cryptographic algorithms and how to select an algorithm for a particular usage scenario
- perform some basic cryptanalysis and describe methods to decrypt poorly encrypted data
- identify external methods that can be used to compromise, or bypass, a cryptographic system
- apply cryptographic modes and algorithms

**Overview/Description**

Using cryptography is far more than just selecting an algorithm and calling the encrypt or decrypt method. In this course, you will learn about the modes of operation for encryption algorithms as well as when particular algorithms are best suited to the data being protected. You will also learn how to manage cryptographic keys and how cryptanalysis can be used against weak cryptographic systems (even when using strong algorithms).

**Target Audience**

System administrators, database administrators, security professionals, software developers, and anyone who has to work with compliancy or regulations that require data protection

### Cryptography Fundamentals: Defining Cryptography

**Lesson Objectives**

**Cryptography Fundamentals: Defining Cryptography**

- start the course
- describe and identify the reasons for having and using cryptography
- recognize historical uses of cryptography and their relevance to cryptography today
- use and identify basic cryptographic terminology
- describe why cryptography is difficult to get right and how poor cryptography can give you a false sense of security
- identify the different types of cryptography and how cryptographic algorithms can be verified and validated
- describe basic export controls and limits that can be imposed on cryptography used around the world
- describe how cryptography can keep data confidential and within limits
- describe why data integrity is an integral part of cryptography
- define how cryptography can provide a means to authenticate an entity
- describe how cryptography can be used to prove, with high certainty, that an action or statement is associated with an entity
- describe how OTP, or one-time pad, cryptography can theoretically provide perfect secrecy but has some significant limitations
- describe and use a substitution cipher and understand the weaknesses that can be exploited by an attacker against these ciphers
- describe and identify the features and use cases for symmetric-key cipher algorithms
- describe and identify the features and use cases for asymmetric-key cipher algorithms
- describe the use of steganography in encryption products to hide the fact data is even encrypted
- describe the purpose of cryptographic hash functions and how they can be used in cryptography to provide data integrity
- describe a digital signature and how it can be used for authentication and non-repudiation
- recognize the difference between blocks and key sizes as they apply to cipher algorithms
- describe and perform padding operations to data for block ciphers
- describe how to encode encrypted data for easier storage or transport
- describe the purpose of an initialization vector for a cipher algorithm and how nonces can be used to protect small datasets
- describe how entropy is used in generating random numbers and how that entropy is critical to the strength of a cryptographic key
- describe the creating, or generating, of keys and how the key strength is critical to cryptographic ciphers
- identify the cryptographic algorithm to use

**Overview/Description**

Cryptography, and understanding its limits and pitfalls, is essential to protecting data. In this course, you will learn about how cryptography can be used to protect and secure data, different methods that exist to protect or transmit data securely, and the components that need to be understood to ensure data can be protected properly.

**Target Audience**

System administrators, database administrators, security professionals, software developers, and anyone who has to work with compliancy or regulations that require data protection.